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The Companies Act, 1956 Sec 1 Short title, and commencement (1) This Act may be called the Companies (Amendment) Act, 2000. (2) The provisions of this Act, other than sections 7 and 75, shall come into force at once and sections 7 and 75 shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint. Sec 2 Definitions

In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires, (1) “abridged prospectus” means a memorandum containing such salient features of a prospectus as may be prescribed; (1A) ” alter ” and ” alteration ” shall include the making of additions and omissions ; (2) ” articles ” means the articles of association of a company as originally framed or as altered from time to time in pursuance of any previous companies law or of this Act, including, so far as they apply to the company, the regulations contained, as the case may be, in Table B in the Schedule annexed to Act No. 9 of 1857 or in Table A in the First Schedule annexed to the Indian Companies Act, 1882 (6 of 1882), or in Table A in the First Schedule annexed to the Indian Companies Act, 1913 (7 of 1913), or in Table A in Schedule I annexed to this Act ; [(3) ****] Omitted by the Companies (Amendment) Act, 2000 [(4) ****] Omitted by the Companies (Amendment) Act, 2000 (5) ” banking company ” has the same meaning as in the Banking Companies Act, 1949 (10 of 1949) ; (6) ” Board of directors ” or ” Board “, in relation to a company, means the Board of directors of the company ; (7) ” body corporate ” or ” corporation ” includes a company incorporated outside India but does not include (a) a corporation sole ; (b) a co-operative society registered under any law relating to co-operative societies ; and (c) any other body corporate (not being a company as defined in this Act), which the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf ; (8) ” book and paper ” and ” book or paper ” include accounts, deeds, vouchers, writings, and documents ; 2 (9) ” branch office ” in relation to a company means (a) any establishment described as a branch by the company ; or (b) any establishment carrying on either the same or substantially the same activity s that carried on by the head office of the company ; or (c) any establishment engaged in any production, processing or manufacture, but does not include any establishment specified in any order made by the Central Government under section 8; (10) ” company ” means a company as defined in section 3 ; (10A) ” Company Law Board ” means the Board of Company Law Administration constituted under section 10E ; (11) ” the Court ” means, (a) with respect to any matter relating to a company (other than any offence against this Act), the Court having jurisdiction under this Act with respect to that matter relating to that company, as provided in section 10 ; (b) with respect to any offence against this Act, the Court of a Magistrate of the First Class or, as the case may be, a Presidency Magistrate, having jurisdiction to try such offence ; (12) ” debenture ” includes debenture stock, bonds and any other securities of a company, whether constituting a charge on the assets of the company or not ; (12A) “Depository” has the same meaning as in the Depositories Act, 1996 (22 of 1996); (12B) “derivative” has the same meaning as in clause (aa) of section 2 of the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 (42 of 1956); (13) ” director ” includes any person occupying the position of director, by whatever name called ; (14) ” District Court ” means the principal Civil Court of original jurisdiction in a district, but does not include a High Court in the exercise of its ordinary original civil jurisdiction; (14A) “dividend” includes any interim dividend; (15) ” document ” includes summons, notice, requisition, order, other legal process, and registers, whether issued, sent or kept in pursuance of this or any other Act or otherwise ; (15A) “employees stock option” means the option given to the whole-time directors, offices or employees of a company, which gives such directors, officers or employees the benefit or right to purchase or subscribe at a future date, the securities offered by the company at a pre-determined price; (16) “existing company” means an existing company as defined in section 3; 3 (17) “financial year” means, in relation to any body corporate, the period in respect of which any profit and loss account of the body corporate laid before it in annual general meeting is made up, whether that period is a year or not: Provided that, in relation to an insurance company, ” financial year ” shall mean the calendar year referred to in sub-section (1) of section 11 of the Insurance Act, 1938 (4 of 1938) ; (18) ” Government company ” means a Government company within the meaning of section 617 ; (18A) Omitted w. e. f. st August,1984 (19) ” holding company ” means a holding company within the meaning of section 4 ; (19A) “hybrid” means any security which has the character of more than one type of security, including their derivatives; (19B) “information memorandum” means a process undertaken prior to the filing of a prospectus by which a demand for the securities proposed to be issued by a company is elicited, and the price and the terms of issue for such securities is assessed, by means of a notice, circular, advertisement or document; (20) Omitted by the J & K (Extension of Laws) Act,1956 ; (21) ” insurance company ” means a company which carries on the business of insurance either solely or in conjunction with any other business or businesses ; (22) ” issued generally ” means, in relation to a prospectus, issued to persons irrespective of their being existing members or debenture holders of the body corporate to which the prospectus relates ; (23) ” limited company ” means a company limited by shares or by guarantee ; (23A) “listed public company” means a public company which has any of its securities listed in any recognized stock exchange; (24) ” manager ” means an individual (not being the managing agent) who, subject to the superintendence, control and direction of the Board of Directors, has the management of the whole, or substantially the whole, of the affairs of a company, and includes a director or any other person occupying the position of a manager, by whatever name called, and whether under a contract of service or not ; [(25) ****] Omitted by the Companies (Amendment) Act, 2000 (26) ” managing director ” means a director who, by virtue of an agreement with the company or of a resolution passed by the company in general meeting or by its Board of directors or, by virtue of its memorandum or articles of association, is entrusted with substantial powers of management which would not otherwise be exercisable by him, and includes a director occupying the position of a managing director, by whatever name called : Provided that the power to do administrative acts of a routine nature when so authorised by the Board such as the power to affix the common seal of the company to any document or to draw and endorse any cheque on the account of the company in any bank or to draw and endorse any negotiable instrument or to sign any certificate of share or to direct registration of transfer of any share, shall not be deemed to be included within substantial powers of management : Provided further that a managing director of a company shall exercise his powers subject to the superintendence, control and direction of its Board of directors ; (27) ” member “, in relation to a company, does not include a bearer of a share-warrant of the company issued in pursuance of section 114 ; (28) ” memorandum ” means the memorandum of association of a company as originally framed or as altered from time to time in pursuance of any previous companies law or of this Act ; (29) ” modify ” and ” modification ” shall include the making of additions and omissions; (30) ” officer ” includes any director, manager or secretary or any person in accordance with whose directions or instructions the Board of directors or any one or more of the directors is or are accustomed to act; (31) ” officer who is in default “, in relation to any provision referred to in section 5, has the meaning specified in that section ; (31A) “option in securities” has the same meaning as in clause (d) of section 2 of the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956; (32) ” paid-up capital ” or ” capital paid-up ” includes capital credited as paid-up ; (33) ” prescribed ” means, as respects the provisions of this Act relating to the winding up of companies except sub-section (5) of section 503, sub-section (3) of section 550, section 552 and sub-section (3) of section 555, prescribed by rules made by the Supreme Court in consultation with High Courts, and as respects the other provisions of this Act including sub-section (5) of section 503, sub-section (3) of section 550, section 552 and sub-section (3) of section 555, prescribed by rules made by the Central Government ; (34) ” previous companies law ” means any of the laws specified in clause (ii) of sub-section (1) of section 3 ; (35) ” private company ” means a private company as defined in section 3 ; (36) ” prospectus ” means any document described or issued as a prospectus and includes any notice, circular, advertisement or other document inviting deposits from the public or inviting offers from the public for the subscription or purchase of any shares in, or debentures of, a body corporate ; (37) ” public company ” means a public company as defined in section 3 ; (38) ” public holiday ” means a public holiday within the meaning of the Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881 (26 of 1881) : Provided that no day declared by the Central Government to be a public holiday shall be deemed to be such a holiday, in relation to any meeting, unless the declaration was notified before the issue of the notice convening such meeting ; (39) ” recognised stock exchange ” means, in relation to any provision of this Act in which it occurs, a stock exchange, whether in or outside India, which is notified by the Central Government in the Official Gazette as a recognised stock exchange for the purposes of that provision ; (40) ” Registrar ” means a Registrar, or an Additional, a Joint, a Deputy or an Assistant Registrar, having the duty of registering companies under this Act ; (41) ” relative ” means, with reference to any person, any one who is related to such person in any of the ways specified in section 6, and no others ; (42) ” Schedule ” means a Schedule annexed to this Act ; (43) ” Scheduled Bank ” has the same meaning as in the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (2 of 1934) ; [(44) ****] Omitted by the Companies (Amendment) Act, 2000 (45) ” secretary ” means a Company Secretary within the meaning of clause (c) of subsection (1) of section 2 of the Company Secretaries Act, 1980 (56 of 1980), and includes any other individual possessing the prescribed qualifications and appointed to perform the duties which may be performed by a secretary under this Act and any other ministerial or administrative duties ; (45A) ” secretary in whole-time practice ” means a secretary who shall be deemed to be in practice within the meaning of sub-section (2) of section 2 of the Company Secretaries Act, 1980 (56 of 1980), and who is not in full-time employment ; (45AA) “securities” means securities as defined in clause (h) of section 2 of the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956, and includes hybrids; (45B) “Securities and Exchange Board of India” means the Securities and Exchange Board of India established under section 3 of the

Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 (15 of 1992). (46) ” share ” means share in the share capital of a company, and includes stock except where a distinction between stock and shares is expressed or implied ; (46A) “share with differential rights” means a share that is issued with differential rights in accordance with the provisions of section 86; (47) ” subsidiary company ” or ” subsidiary ” means a subsidiary company within the meaning of section 4 ; (48) ” total voting power “, in regard to any matter relating to a body corporate, means the total number of votes which may be cast in regard to that matter on a poll at a meeting of such body, if all the members thereof and all other persons, if any, having a right to vote on that matter are present at the meeting, and cast their votes ; (49) ” trading corporation ” means a trading corporation within the meaning of entries 43 and 44 in List I in the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution ; (49A) Omitted w. e. f. 1st July,1967 (50) ” variation ” shall include abrogation ; and ” vary ” shall include abrogate. Sec 2A Interpretation of certain words and expressions. Words and expressions used and not defined in this Act but defined in the Depositories Act, 1996(22 of 1996), shall have the same meanings respectively assigned to them in that Act. Sec 3 – Definitions of ” company “, ” existing company “, ” private company ” and ” public company “. 1) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires, the expressions ” company “, ” existing company “, ” private company ” and ” public company “, shall, subject to the provisions of sub-section (2), have the meanings specified below : (i) ” company ” means a company formed and registered under this Act or an existing company as defined in clause (ii) ; (ii) ” existing company ” means a company formed and registered under any of the previous companies laws specified below : (a) any Act or Acts relating to companies in force before the Indian Companies Act, 1866 (10 of 1866), and repealed by that Act ; (b) the Indian Companies Act, 1866 (10 of 1866) ; (c) the Indian Companies Act, 1882 (6 of 1882) ; (d) the Indian Companies Act, 1913 (7 of 1913) ; (e) the Registration of Transferred Companies Ordinance, 1942 (54 of 1942) ; and (f) any law corresponding to any of the Acts or the Ordinance aforesaid and in force : (1) in the merged territories or in a Part B States (other than the State of Jammu and Kashmir), or any part thereof, before the extension thereto of the Indian Companies Act, 1913 (7 of 1913) ; or (2) in the State of Jammu and Kashmir, or any part thereof, before the commencement of the Jammu and Kashmir (Extension of Laws) Act, 1956 (62 of 1956), in so far as banking, insurance and financial corporations are concerned, and before the commencement of the Central Laws (Extension to Jammu and Kashmir) Act, 1968 (25 of 1968) in so far as other corporations are concerned ; and (g) the Portuguese Commercial Code, in so far as it relates to ” sociedades anonimas ” ; (iii) ” private company ” means a company which has a minimum paid-up capital of one lakh rupees or such higher paid-up capital as may be prescribed, and by its articles, (a) restricts the right to transfer its shares, if any ; (b) limits the number of its members to fifty not including (i) persons who are in the employment of the company ; and (ii) persons who, having been formerly in the employment of the company, were members of the company while in that employment and have continued to be members after the employment ceased ; (c) prohibits any invitation to the public to subscribe for any shares in, or debentures of, the company ; (d) prohibits any invitation or acceptance of deposits from persons other than its members, directors or their relatives: Provided that where two or more persons hold one or more shares in a company jointly, they shall, for the purposes of this definition, be treated as a single member; (iv) ” public company ” means a company which (a) is not a private company; (b) has a minimum paid-up capital of five lakh rupees or such higher paid-up capital, as may be prescribed ; (c) is a private company which is a subsidiary of a company which is not a private company; (2) Unless the context otherwise requires, the following companies shall not be included within the scope of any of the expressions defined in clauses (i) to (iv) of sub-section (1), and such companies shall be deemed, for the purposes of this Act, to have been formed and registered outside India : (a) a company the registered office whereof is in Burma, Aden or Pakistan and which immediately before the separation of that country from India was a company as defined in clause (i) of sub-section (1) ; (b) Omitted by the J & K ( Extension of Laws ) Act,1956. (3) Every private company, existing on the commencement of the Companies (Amendment) Act, 2000, with a paid-up capital of less than one lakh rupees, shall, 8 within a period of two years from such commencement, enhance its paid-up capital to one lakh rupees. 4) Every public company, existing on the commencement of the Companies (Amendment) Act, 2000, with a paid-up capital of less than five lakh rupees, shall, within a period of two years from such commencement, enhance its paid-up capital to five lakh rupees. (5) Where a private company or a public company fails to enhance its paid-up capital in the manner specified in sub-section (3) or sub-section (4), such company shall be deemed to be a defunct company within the meaning of section 560 and its name shall be struck off from the register by the Registrar. (6) A company registered under section 25 before or after the commencement of Companies (Amendment) Act, 2000 shall not be required to have minimum paid-up capital specified in this section. Sec 4 Meaning of ” holding company ” and ” subsidiary”. 1) For the purposes of this Act, a company shall, subject to the provisions of sub-section (3), be deemed to be a subsidiary of another if, but only if, (a) that other controls the composition of its Board of directors ; or (b) that other (i) where the first-mentioned company is an existing company in respect of which the holders of preference shares issued before the commencement of this Act have the same voting rights in all respects as the holders of equity shares, exercises or controls more than half of the total voting power of such company ; (ii) where the first-mentioned company is any other company, holds more than half in nominal value of its equity share capital ; or (c) the first-mentioned company is a subsidiary of any company which is that other’s subsidiary. Illustration Company B is a subsidiary of company A, and company C is a subsidiary of company B. Company C is a subsidiary of company A, by virtue of clause (c) above. If company D is a subsidiary of company C, company D will be a subsidiary of company B and consequently also of company A, by virtue of clause (c) above, and so on. 2) For the purposes of sub-section (1), the composition of a company’s Board of directors shall be deemed to be controlled by another company if, but only if, that other company by the exercise of some power exercisable by it at its discretion without the consent or concurrence of any other person, can appoint or remove the holders of all or a majority of the directorships ; but for the purposes of this provision that other company shall be deemed to have power to appoint to a directorship with respect to which any of the following conditions is satisfied, that is to say – 9 (a) that a person cannot be appointed thereto without the exercise in his favour by that other company of such a power as aforesaid ; (b) that a person’s appointment thereto follows necessarily from his appointment as director, or manager of, or to any other office or employment in, that other company; or (c) that the directorship is held by an individual nominated by that other company or a subsidiary thereof. 3) In determining whether one company is a subsidiary of another (a) any shares held or power exercisable by that other company in a fiduciary capacity shall be treated as not held or exercisable by it ; (b) subject to the provisions of clauses (c) and (d), any shares held or power exercisable (i) by any person as a nominee for that other company (except where that other is concerned only in a fiduciary capacity) ; or (ii) by, or by a nominee for, a subsidiary of that other company, not being a subsidiary which is concerned only in a fiduciary capacity ; shall be treated as held or exercisable by that other company ; (c) any shares held or power exercisable by any person by virtue of the provisions of any debentures of the first-mentioned company or of a trust deed for securing any issue of such debentures shall be disregarded ; (d) any shares held or power exercisable by, or by a nominee for, that other or its subsidiary not being held or exercisable as mentioned in clause (c) shall be treated as not held or exercisable by that other, if the ordinary business of that other or its subsidiary, as the case may be, includes the lending of money and the shares are held or the power is exercisable as aforesaid by way of security only for the purposes of a transaction entered into in the ordinary course of that business. (4) For the purposes of this Act, a company shall be deemed to be the holding company of another if, but only if, that other is its subsidiary. (5) In this section, the expression ” company ” includes any body corporate, and the expression ” equity share capital ” has the same meaning as in sub-section (2) of section 85. 6) In the case of a body corporate which is incorporated in a country outside India, a subsidiary or holding company of the body corporate under the law of such country shall be deemed to be a subsidiary or holding company of the body corporate within the meaning and for the purposes of this Act also, whether the requirements of this section are fulfilled or not. (7) A private company, being a subsidiary of a body corporate incorporated outside India, which, if incorporated in India, would be a public company within the meaning of this Act, shall be deemed for the purposes of this Act to be a subsidiary of a public company if the 10 entire share capital in that private company is not held by that body corporate whether alone or together with one or more other bodies corporate incorporated outside India. Sec 4A Public financial institutions. 1) Each of the financial institutions specified in this sub-section shall be regarded, for the purposes of this Act, as a public financial institution, namely : (i) the Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India Limited, a company formed and registered under the Indian Companies Act, 1913 (7 of 1913) ; (ii) the Industrial Finance Corporation of India, established under section 3 of the Industrial Finance Corporation Act, 1948 ( 15 of 1948) ; (iii) the Industrial Development Bank of India, established under section 3 of the Industrial Development Bank of India Act, 1964 (18 of 1964) ; (iv) the Life Insurance Corporation of India, established under section 3 of the Life Insurance Corporation Act, 1956 (31 of 1956) ; (v) the Unit Trust of India, established under section 3 of the Unit Trust of India Act, 1963 (52 of 1963). (vi) the Infrastructure Development finance Company Limited, a company formed and registered under this Act. 2) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (1), the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify such other institution as it may think fit to be a public financial institution : Provided that no institution shall be so specified unless, (i) it has been established or constituted by or under any Central Act, or (ii) not less than fifty-one per cent of the paid-up share capital of such institution is held or controlled by the Central Government. Sec 5 Meaning of ” officer who is in default”. For the purpose of any provision in this Act which enacts that an officer of the company who is in default shall be liable to any punishment or penalty, whether by way of imprisonment, fine or otherwise, the expression ” officer who is in default ” means all the following officers of the company, namely : (a) the managing director or managing directors ; (b) the whole-time director or whole-time directors ; (c) the manager ; (d) the secretary ; 1 (e) any person in accordance with whose directions or instructions the Board of directors of the company is accustomed to act ; (f) any person charged by the Board with the responsibility of complying with that provision : Provided that the person so charged has given his consent in this behalf to the Board ; (g) where any company does not have any of the officers specified in clauses (a) to (c), any director or directors who may be specified by the Board in this behalf or where no director is so specified, all the directors : Provided that where the Board exercises any power under clause (f) or clause (g), it shall, within thirty days of the exercise of such powers, file with the Registrar a return in the prescribed form. Sec 6 Meaning of ” relative”. A person shall be deemed to be a relative of another, if, and only if, (a) they are members of a Hindu undivided family ; or (b) they are husband and wife ; or (c) the one is related to the other in the manner indicated in Schedule IA. Sec 7 – Interpretation of ” person in accordance with whose directions or instructions directors are accustomed to act “.

Except where this Act expressly provides otherwise, a person shall not be deemed to be, within the meaning of any provision in this Act, a person in accordance with whose directions or instructions the Board of directors of a company is accustomed to act, by reason only that the Board acts on advice given by him in a professional capacity. Sec 8 – Power of Central Government to declare an establishment not to be a branch office. The Central Government may, by order, declare that in the case of any company, any establishment carrying on either the same or substantially the same activity as that carried on by the head office of the company, or any establishment engaged in any production, processing or manufacture, shall not be treated as a branch office of the company for all or any of the purposes of this Act. Sec 9 – Act to override memorandum, articles, etc.

Save as otherwise expressly provided in the Act : (a) the provisions of this Act shall have effect notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in the memorandum or articles of a company, or in any agreement executed by it, or in any resolution passed by the company in general meeting or by its Board of directors, whether the same be registered, executed or passed, as the case may be, before or after the commencement of this Act ; and (b) any provision contained in the memorandum, articles, agreement or resolution aforesaid shall, to the extent to which it is repugnant to the provisions of this Act, become or be void, as the case may be. Sec 10 Jurisdiction of Courts. 12 (1) The Court having jurisdiction under this Act shall be : (a) the High Court having jurisdiction in relation to the place at which the registered office of the company concerned is situate, except to the extent to which jurisdiction has been conferred on any District Court or District Courts subordinate to that High Court in pursuance of sub-section (2) ; and (b) where jurisdiction has been so conferred, the District Court in regard to matters falling within the scope of the jurisdiction conferred, in respect of companies having their registered offices in the district. 2) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette and subject to such restrictions, limitations and conditions as it thinks fit, empower any District Court to exercise all or any of the jurisdiction conferred by this Act upon the Court, not being the jurisdiction conferred (a) in respect of companies generally, by sections 237, 391, 394, 395 and 397 to 407, both inclusive ; (b) in respect of companies with a paid-up share capital of not less than one lakh of rupees, by Part VII (sections 425 to 560) and the other provisions of this Act relating to the winding up of companies. (3) For the purposes of jurisdiction to wind up companies, the expression ” registered office ” means the place which has longest been the registered office of the company during the six months immediately preceding the presentation of the petition for winding up. ** Sections 10A, 10B, 10C, 10D have been omitted w. e. f. 1st July,1967 Sec 10E Constitution of Board of

Company Law Administration. (1) As soon as may be after the commencement of the Companies (Amendment) Act, 1988, the Central Government shall, by notification in the Official Gazette, constitute a Board to be called the Board of Company Law Administration. (1A) The Company Law Board shall exercise and discharge such powers and functions as may be conferred on it, by or under this Act or any other law, and shall also exercise and discharge such other powers and functions of the Central Government under this Act or any other law as may be conferred on it by the Central Government, by notification in the Official Gazette under the provisions of this Act or that other law. 2) The Company Law Board shall consist of such number of members, not exceeding nine, as the Central Government deems fit, to be appointed by that Government by notification in the Official Gazette : Provided that the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, continue the appointment of the chairman or any other member of the Company Law Board functioning as such immediately before the commencement of the Companies (Amendment) Act, 1988, as the chairman or any other member of the Company Law Board, after such commencement for such period not exceeding three years as may be specified in the notification. 13 (2A) The members of the Company Law Board shall possess such qualifications and experience as may be prescribed. (3) One of the members shall be appointed by the Central Government to be the chairman of the Company Law Board. (4) No act done by the Company Law Board shall be called in question on the ground only of any defect in the constitution of, or the existence of any vacancy in, the Company Law Board. (4A) Omitted w. e. f. 31st May,1991. 4B) The Board may, by order in writing, form one or more Benches from among its members and authorise each such Bench to exercise and discharge such of the Board’s powers and functions as may be specified in the order ; and every order made or act done by a Bench in exercise of such powers or discharge of such functions shall be deemed to be the order or act, as the case may be, of the Board. (4C) Every Bench referred to in sub-section (4B) shall have powers which are vested in a Court under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908), while trying a suit, in respect of the following matters, namely : (a) discovery and inspection of documents or other material objects producible as evidence ; (b) enforcing the attendance of witnesses and requiring the deposit of their expenses; (c) compelling the production of documents or other material objects producible as evidence and impounding the same ; (d) examining witnesses on oath ; (e) granting adjournments ; (f) reception of evidence on affidavits. 4D) Every Bench shall be deemed to be a civil court for the purposes of section 195 and Chapter XXVI of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974), and every proceeding before the Bench shall be deemed to be a judicial proceeding within the meaning of sections 193 and 228 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860 (45 of 1860), and for the purpose of section 196 of that Code. (5) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-sections (4C) and (4D), the Company Law Board shall in the exercise of its powers and the discharge of its functions under this Act, or any other law be guided by the principles of natural justice and shall act in its discretion. (6) Subject to the foregoing provisions of this section, the Company Law Board shall have power to regulate its own procedure. Sec 10F Appeals against the orders of the Company Law Board. 4 Any person aggrieved by any decision or order of the Company Law Board file an appeal to the High Court within sixty days from the date of communication of the decision or order of the Company Law Board to him on any question of law arising out of such order : Provided that the High Court may, if it is satisfied that the appellant was prevented by sufficient cause from filing the appeal within the said period, allow it to be filed within a further period not exceeding sixty days. Sec 11 Prohibition of associations and partnerships exceeding certain number. (1) No company, association or partnership consisting of more than ten persons shall be formed for the purpose of carrying on the business of banking, unless it is registered as a company under this Act, or is formed in pursuance of some other Indian Law. 2) No company, association or partnership consisting of more than twenty persons shall be formed for the purpose of carrying on any other business that has for its object the acquisition of gain by the company, association or partnership, or by the individual members thereof, unless it is registered as a company under this Act, or is formed in pursuance of some other Indian law. (3) This section shall not apply to a joint family as such carrying on a business; and where a business is carried on by two or more joint families, in computing the number of persons for the purposes of sub-sections (1) and (2), minor members of such families shall be excluded. 4) Every member of a company, association or partnership carrying on business in contravention of this section shall be personally liable for all liabilities incurred in such business. (5) Every person who is a member of a company, association or partnership formed in contravention of this section shall be punishable with fine which may extend to ten thousand rupees. Sec 12 Mode of forming incorporated company. (1) Any seven or more persons, or where the company to be formed will be a private company, any two or more persons, associated for any lawful purpose may, by subscribing their names to a memorandum of association and otherwise complying with the requirements of this Act in respect of registration, form an incorporated company, with or without limited liability. 2) Such a company may be either : (a) a company having the liability of its members limited by the memorandum to the amount, if any, unpaid on the shares respectively held by them (in this Act termed “a company limited by shares”); (b) a company having the liability of its members limited by the memorandum to such amount as the members may respectively undertake by the memorandum to contribute to the assets of the company in the event of its being wound up (in this Act termed “a company limited by guarantee”); or 15 (c) a company not having any limit on the liability of its members (in this Act termed “an unlimited company”). Sec 13 Requirements with respect to memorandum. (1) The memorandum of every company shall state : (a) the name of the company with “Limited” as the last word of the name in the case of a public limited company, and with “Private Limited” as the last words of the name in the case of a private limited company; (b) the State in hich the registered office of the company is to be situate; (c) in the case of a company in existence immediately before the commencement of the Companies (Amendment) Act, 1965, (31 of 1965) the objects of the company; (d) in the case of a company formed after such commencement, (i) the main objects of the company to be pursued by the company on its incorporation and objects incidental or ancillary to the attainment of the main objects; (ii) other objects of the company not included in sub-clause (i); and (e) in the case of companies (other than trading corporations), with objects not confined to one State, the States to whose territories the objects extend. (2) The memorandum of a company limited by shares or by guarantee shall also state that the liability of its members is limited. 3) The memorandum of a company limited by guarantee shall also state that each member undertakes to contribute to the assets of the company in the event of its being wound up while he is a member or within one year after he ceases to be a member, for payment of the debts and liabilities of the company, or of such debts and liabilities of the company as may have been contracted before he ceases to be a member, as the case may be, and of the costs, charges and expenses of winding up, and for adjustment of the rights of the contributories among themselves, such amount as may be required, not exceeding a specified amount. (4) In the case of a company having a share capital : (a) unless the company is an unlimited company, the memorandum shall also state the amount of share capital with which the company is to be registered and the division thereof into shares of a fixed amount; (b) no subscriber of the memorandum shall take less than one share; and (c) each subscriber of the memorandum shall write opposite to his name the number of shares he takes. 16 Sec 14 Form of memorandum.

The memorandum of association of a company shall be in such one of the Forms in Tables B, C, D and E in Schedule I as may be applicable to the case of the company, or in a Form as near thereto as circumstances admit. Sec 15 Printing and signature of memorandum. The memorandum shall (a) be printed, (b) be divided into paragraphs numbered consecutively, and (c) be signed by each subscriber (who shall add his address, description and occupation, if any), in the presence of at least one witness who shall attest the signature and shall likewise add his address, description and occupation, if any. Sec 15A – Special provision as to alteration of memorandum consequent on alteration of name of State of Madras.

Where, in the memorandum of association of a company in existence immediately before the commencement of the Madras State (Alteration of Name) Act, 1968 (53 of 1968), it is stated that Madras is the State in which the registered office of that company is situate, then, notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, the said memorandum shall, as from such commencement, be deemed to have been altered by substitution of a reference to the State of Tamil Nadu for the reference to the State of Madras, and the Registrar of the State of Tamil Nadu shall make necessary alterations in the memorandum of association and the certificate of incorporation of the said company. Sec 15B – Special provision as to alteration of memorandum consequent on alteration of name of State of Mysore.

Where, in the memorandum of association of a company in existence immediately before the commencement of the Mysore State (Alteration of Name) Act, 1973 (31 of 1973), it is stated that Mysore is the State in which the registered office of that company is situate, then, notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, the said memorandum shall, as from such commencement, be deemed to have been altered by substitution of a reference to the State of Karnataka for the reference to the State of Mysore, and the Registrar of the State of Karnataka shall make necessary alterations in the memorandum of association and the certificate of incorporation of the said company. Sec 16 Alteration of memorandum. (1) A company shall not alter the conditions contained in its memorandum except in the cases, in the mode, and to the extent, for which express provision is made in this Act. 2) Only those provisions which are required by section 13 or by any other specific provision contained in this Act, to be stated in the memorandum of the company concerned shall be deemed to be conditions contained in its memorandum. 17 (3) Other provisions contained in the memorandum, including those relating to the appointment of a managing director or manager, may be altered in the same manner as the articles of the company, but if there is any express provision in this Act permitting of the alteration of such provisions in any other manner, they may also be altered in such other manner. (4) All references to the articles of a company in this Act shall be construed as including references to the other provisions aforesaid contained in its memorandum. Sec 17 Special resolution and confirmation by Company Law Board required for alteration of memorandum. 1) A company may, by special resolution, alter the provisions of its memorandum so as to change the place of its registered office from one State to another, or with respect to the objects of the company so far as may be required to enable it : (a) to carry on its business more economically or more efficiently; (b) to attain its main purpose by new or improved means; (c) to enlarge or change the local area of its operations; (d) to carry on some business which under existing circumstances may conveniently or advantageously be combined with the business of the company; (e) to restrict or abandon any of the objects specified in the memorandum; (f) to sell or dispose of the whole, or any part, of the undertaking, or of any of the undertakings, of the company; or (g) to amalgamate with any other company or body of persons. (2) The alteration of the provisions of memorandum relating to the change of the place of its registered office from one State to another shall not take effect unless it is confirmed by the Company Law Board on petition. 3) Before confirming the alteration, the Company Law Board must be satisfied : (a) that sufficient notice has been given to every holder of the debentures of the company, and to every other person or class of persons whose interests will, in the opinion of the Company Law Board, be affected by the alteration; and (b) that, with respect to every creditor who, in the opinion of the Company Law Board, is entitled to object to the alteration, and who signifies his objection in the manner directed by the Company Law Board, either his consent to the alteration has been obtained or his debt or claim has been discharged or has determined, or has been secured to the satisfaction of the Company Law Board: Provided that the Company Law Board may, in the case of any person or class of persons, for special reasons, dispense with the notice required by clause (a). 18 (4) The Company Law Board shall cause notice of the petition for confirmation of the alteration to be served on the Registrar who shall also be given a reasonable opportunity to appear before the Company Law Board and state his objections and suggestions, if any, with respect to the confirmation of the alteration. (5) The Company Law Board may make an order confirming the alteration on such terms and conditions, if any, as it thinks fit, and may make such order as to costs as it thinks proper. 6) The Company Law Board shall, in exercising its powers under this section, have regard to the rights and interests of the members of the company and of every class of them, as well as to the rights and interests of the creditors of the company and of every class of them. (7) The Company Law Board may, if it thinks fit, adjourn the proceedings in order that an arrangement may be made to the satisfaction of the Company Law Board for the purchase of the interests of dissentient members; and may give such directions and make such orders as it thinks fit for facilitating, or carrying into effect, any such arrangement: Provided that no part of the capital of the company may be expended in any such purchase. Sec 17A Change of registered office within a State 1) No company shall change the place of its registered office from one place to another within a State unless such change is confirmed by the Regional Director. (2) The company shall make an application in the prescribed form to the Regional Director for confirmation under sub-section (1). (3) The confirmation referred to in sub-section (1), shall be communicated to the company within four weeks from the date of receipt of application for such change. Explanation – For the purposes of this section, it is hereby declared that the provisions of this section shall apply only to the companies which change the registered office from the jurisdiction of one Registrar of Companies to the jurisdiction of another Registrar of Companies within the same State. 4) The company shall file, with the Registrar a certified copy of the confirmation by the Regional Director for change of its registered office under this section, within two months from the date of confirmation, together with a printed copy of the memorandum as altered and the Registrar shall register the same and certify the registration under his hand within one month from the date of filing of such document. (5) The certificate shall be conclusive evidence that all the requirements of this Act with respect to the alteration and confirmation have been complied with and henceforth the memorandum as altered shall be the memorandum of the company Sec 18 Alteration to be registered within three months. 1) A company shall file with the Registrar : (a) a special resolution passed by a company in relation to clauses (a) to (g) of sub-section (1) of section 17, within one month from the date of such resolution ; or (b) a certified copy of the order of the Company Law Board made under sub-section (5) of that section confirming the alteration, within three months from the date of order, 19 as the case may be, together with a printed copy of the memorandum as altered and the Registrar shall register the same and certify the registration under his hand within one month from the date of filing of such documents. (2) The certificate shall be conclusive evidence that all the requirements of this Act with respect to the alteration and the confirmation thereof have been complied with, and thenceforth the memorandum as so altered shall be the memorandum of the company. 3) Where the alteration involves a transfer of the registered office from one State to another, a certified copy of the order confirming the alteration shall be filed by the company with the Registrar of each of the States, and the Registrar of each such State shall register the same, and shall certify under his hand the registration thereof; and the Registrar of the State from which such office is transferred shall send to the Registrar of the other State all documents relating to the company registered, recorded or filed in his office. (4) The Company Law Board may, at any time, by order, extend the time for the filing of documents or for the registration of the alteration under this section by such period as it thinks proper. Sec 19 Effect of failure to register. (1) No such alteration as is referred to in section 17 shall have any effect until it has been duly registered in accordance with the provisions of section 18. 2) If the documents required to be filed with the Registrar under section 18 are not filed within the time allowed under that section, such alteration and the order of the Company Law Board made under sub-section (5) of section 17 and all proceedings connected therewith, shall, at the expiry of such period, become void and inoperative : Provided that the Company Law Board may, on sufficient cause shown, revive the order on application made within a further period of one month. Sec 20 Companies not to be registered with undesirable names. (1) No company shall be registered by a name which, in the opinion of the Central Government, is undesirable. 2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, a name which is identical with, or too nearly resembles, the name by which a company in existence has been previously registered, may be deemed to be undesirable by the Central Government within the meaning of sub-section (1). Sec 21 Change of name by company. A company may, by special resolution and with the approval of the Central Government signified in writing, change its name: Provided that no such approval shall be required where the only change in the name of a company is the addition thereto or, as the case may be, the deletion therefrom, of the word “Private”, consequent on the conversion in accordance with the provisions of this Act of a public company into a private company or of a private company into a public company. 20 Sec 22 Rectification of name of company.

If, through inadvertence or otherwise, a company on its first registration or on its registration by a new name, is registered by a name which, in the opinion of the Central Government, is identical with, or too nearly resembles, the name by which a company in existence has been previously registered, whether under this Act or any previous companies law, the firstmentioned company : (a) may, by ordinary resolution and with the previous approval of the Central Government signified in writing, change its name or new name; and (b) shall, if the Central Government so directs within twelve months of its first registration or registration by its new name, as the case may be, or within twelve months of the commencement of this Act, whichever is later, by ordinary resolution and with the previous approval of the Central Government signified in writing, change its name or new name within a period of three months from the date of the direction or such longer period as the Central Government may think fit to allow. (2) If a company makes default in complying with any direction given under clause (b) of sub-section (1), the company, and every officer who is in default, shall be punishable with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees for every day during which the default continues. Sec 23 Registration of change of name and effect thereof. 1) Where a company changes its name in pursuance of section 21 or 22, the Registrar shall enter the new name on the register in the place of the former name, and shall issue a fresh certificate of incorporation with the necessary alterations embodied therein; and the change of name shall be complete and effective only on the issue of such a certificate. (2) The Registrar shall also make the necessary alteration in the memorandum of association of the company. (3) The change of name shall not effect any rights or obligations of the company, or render defective any legal proceedings by or against it; and any legal proceedings which might have been continued or commenced by or against the company by its former name may be continued by or against the company by its new name. Sec 24 Change of name of existing private limited companies. 1) In the case of a company which was a private limited company immediately before the commencement of this Act, the Registrar shall enter the word “Private” before the word “Limited” in the name of the company upon the register and shall also make the necessary alterations in the certificate of incorporation issued to the company and in its memorandum of association. (2) Sub-section (3) of section 23 shall apply to a change of name under sub-section (1), as it applies to a change of name under section 21. Sec 25 Power to dispense with “Limited” in name of charitable or other company. (1) Where it is proved to the satisfaction of the Central Government that an association : 1 (a) is about to be formed as a limited company for promoting commerce, art, science, religion, charity or any other useful object, and (b) intends to apply its profits, if any, or other income in promoting its objects, and to prohibit the payment of any dividend to its members, the Central Government may, by licence, direct that the association may be registered as a company with limited liability, without the addition to its name of the word “Limited” or the words “Private Limited”. (2) The association may thereupon be registered accordingly; and on registration shall enjoy all the privileges, and (subject to the provisions of this section) be subject to all the obligations, of limited companies. 3) Where it is proved to the satisfaction of the Central Government : (a) that the objects of a company registered under this Act as a limited company are restricted to those specified in clause (a) of sub-section (1), and (b) that by its constitution the company is required to apply its profits, if any, or other income in promoting its objects and is prohibited from paying any dividend to its members, the Central Government may, by licence, authorise the company by a special resolution to change its name, including or consisting of the omission of the word “Limited” or the words “Private Limited”; and section 23 shall apply to a change of name under this sub-section as it applies to a change of name under section 21. (4) A firm may be a member of any association or company licensed under this section, but on the dissolution of the firm, its membership of the association or company shall cease. (5) A licence may be granted by the Central Government under this section on such conditions and subject to such regulations as it thinks fit, and those conditions and regulations shall be binding on the body to which the licence is granted, and where the grant is under sub-section (1), shall, if the Central Government so directs, be inserted in the memorandum, or in the articles, or partly in the one and partly in the other. 6) It shall not be necessary for a body to which a licence is so granted to use the word “Limited” or the words “Private Limited” as any part of its name and, unless its articles otherwise provide, such body shall, if the Central Government by general or special order so directs and to the extent specified in the directions, be exempt from such of the provisions of this Act as may be specified therein. (7) The licence may at any time be revoked by the Central Government, and upon revocation, the Registrar shall enter the word “Limited” or the words “Private Limited” at the end of the name upon the register of the body to which it was granted; and the body shall cease to enjoy the exemption granted by this section: Provided that, before a licence is so revoked, the Central Government shall give notice in writing of its intention to the body, and shall afford it an opportunity of being heard in opposition to the revocation. 2 (8) (a) A body in respect of which a licence under this section is in force shall not alter the provisions of its memorandum with respect to its objects except with the previous approval of the Central Government signified in writing. (b) The Central Government may revoke the licence of such a body if it contravenes the provisions of clause (a). (c) In according the approval referred to in clause (a), the Central Government may vary the licence by making it subject to such conditions and regulations as that Government thinks fit, in lieu of, or in addition to, the conditions and regulations, if any, to which the licence was formerly subject. d) Where the alteration proposed in the provisions of the memorandum of a body under this sub-section is with respect to the objects of the body so far as may be required to enable it to do any of the things specified in clauses (a) to (g) of subsection (1) of section 17, the provisions of this sub-section shall be in addition to, and not in derogation of, the provisions of that section. (9) Upon the revocation of a licence granted under this section to a body the name of which contains the words “Chamber of Commerce”, that body shall, within a period of three months from the date of revocation or such longer period as the Central Government may think fit to allow, change its name to a name which does not contain those words; and (a) the notice to be given under the proviso to sub-section (7) to that body shall include a statement of the effect of the foregoing provisions of this sub-section; and (b) section 23 shall apply to a change of name under this sub-section as it applies to a change of name under section 21. 10) If the body makes default in complying with the requirements of sub-section (9), it shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five thousand rupees for every day during which the default continues. Sec 26 Articles prescribing regulations. There may in the case of a public company limited by shares, and there shall in the case of an unlimited company or a company limited by guarantee or a private company limited by shares, be registered with the memorandum, articles of association signed by the subscribers of the memorandum, prescribing regulations for the company. Sec 27 Regulations required in case of unlimited company, company limited by guarantee or private company limited by shares. 1) In the case of an unlimited company, the articles shall state the number of members with which the company is to be registered and, if the company has a share capital, the amount of share capital with which the company is to be registered. (2) In the case of a company limited by guarantee, the articles shall state the number of members with which the company is to be registered. 23 (3) In the case of a private company having a share capital, the articles shall contain provisions relating to the matters specified in sub-clauses (a), (b) and (c) of clause (iii) of sub-section (1) of section 3; and in the case of any other private company, the articles shall contain provisions relating to the matters specified in the said sub-clauses (b) and (c).

Sec 28 Adoption and application of Table A in the case of companies limited by shares. (1) The articles of association of a company limited by shares may adopt all or any of the regulations contained in Table A in Schedule I. (2) In the case of any such company which is registered after the commencement of this Act, if articles are not registered, or if articles are registered, in so far as the articles do not exclude or modify the regulations contained in Table A aforesaid, those regulations shall, so far as applicable, be the regulations of the company in the same manner and to the same extent as if they were contained in duly registered articles. Sec 29 Form of articles in the case of other companies.

The articles of association of any company, not being a company limited by shares, shall be in such one of the Forms in Tables C, D and E in Schedule I as may be applicable, or in a Form as near thereto as circumstances admit: Provided that nothing in this section shall be deemed to prevent a company from including any additional matters in its articles in so far as they are not inconsistent with the provisions contained in the Form in any of the Tables C, D and E, adopted by the company. Sec 30 Form and signature of articles. Articles shall (a) be printed; (b) be divided into paragraphs numbered consecutively; and (c) be signed by each subscriber of the memorandum of association (who shall add his address, description and occupation, if any), in the presence of at least one witness who shall attest the signature and shall likewise add his address, description and occupation, if any. Sec 31 Alteration of articles by special resolution. 1) Subject to the provisions of this Act and to the conditions contained in its memorandum, a company may, by special resolution, alter its articles: Provided that no alteration made in the articles under this sub-section which has the effect of converting a public company into a private company, shall have effect unless such alteration has been approved by the Central Government. (2) Any alteration so made shall, subject to the provisions of this Act, be as valid as if originally contained in the articles and be subject in like manner to alteration by special resolution. 24 (2A) Where any alteration such as is referred to in the proviso to sub-section (1) has been approved by the Central Government, a printed copy of the articles as altered shall be filed by the company with the Registrar within one month of the date of receipt of the order of approval. (3) The power of altering articles under this section shall, in the case of any company formed and registered under Act No. 19 of 1857 and Act No. of 1860 or either of them, extend to altering any provisions in Table B annexed to Act 19 of 1857, and shall also, in the case of an unlimited company formed and registered under the said Acts or either of them, extend to altering any regulations relating to the amount of capital or its distribution into shares, notwithstanding that those regulations are contained in the memorandum. Sec 32 Registration of unlimited company as limited, etc. (1) Subject to the provisions of this section, (a) a company registered as unlimited may register under this Act as a limited company; and (b) a company already registered as a limited company may re-register under this Act. 2) On registration in pursuance of this section, the Registrar shall close the former registration of the company, and may dispense with the delivery to him of copies of any documents with copies of which he was furnished on the occasion of the original registration of the company; but, save as aforesaid, the registration shall take place in the same manner and shall have effect, as if it were the first registration of the company under this Act. (3) The registration of an unlimited company as a limited company under this section shall not affect any debts, liabilities, obligations or contracts incurred or entered into, by, to, with or on behalf of, the company before the registration, and those debts, liabilities, obligations and contracts may be enforced in the manner provided for Part IX of this Act in the case of a company registered in pursuance of that Part. Sec 33 Registration of memorandum and articles. 1) There shall be presented for registration, to the Registrar of the State in which the registered office of the company is stated by the memorandum to be situate : (a) the memorandum of the company; (b) its articles, if any; and (c) the agreement, if any, which the company proposes to enter into with any individual for appointment as its managing or whole-time director or manager. (2) A declaration by an advocate of the Supreme Court or of a High Court, an attorney or a pleader entitled to appear before a High Court, or a secretary, or a chartered accountant, in whole-time practice in India, who is engaged in the formation of a company, or by a person named in the articles as a director, manager or secretary of the company, that all the requirements of this Act and the rules thereunder have been complied with in respect of 25 registration and matters precedent and incidental thereto, shall be filed with the Registrar; and the Registrar may accept such a declaration as sufficient evidence of such compliance.

Explanation: For the purposes of this sub-section, “chartered accountant in wholetime practice in India” means a chartered accountant within the meaning of clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 2 of the Chartered Accountants Act, 1949 (38 of 1949), who is practising in India and who is not in full-time employment. (3) If the Registrar is satisfied that all the requirements aforesaid have been complied with by the company and that it is authorised to be registered under this Act, he shall retain and register the memorandum, the articles, if any, and the agreement referred to in clause (c) of sub-section (1), if any. Sec 34 Effect of registration. (1) On the registration of the memorandum of a company, the Registrar shall certify under his hand that the company is incorporated and, in the case of a limited company, that the company is limited. 2) From the date of incorporation mentioned in the certificate of incorporation, such of the subscribers of the memorandum and other persons, as may from time to time be members of the company, shall be a body corporate by the name contained in the memorandum, capable forthwith of exercising all the functions of an incorporated company, and having perpetual succession and a common seal, but with such liability on the part of the members to contribute to the assets of the company in the event of its being wound up as is mentioned in this Act. Sec 35 Conclusiveness of certificate of incorporation. A certificate of incorporation given by the Registrar in respect of any association shall be conclusive evidence that all the requirements of this Act have been complied with in respect of registration and matters precedent and incidental thereto, and that the association is a company authorized to be registered and duly registered under this Act. Sec 36 Effect of memorandum and articles. 1) Subject to the provisions of this Act, the memorandum and articles shall, when registered, bind the company and the members thereof to the same extent as if they respectively had been signed by the company and by each member, and contained covenants on its and his part to observe all the provisions of the memorandum and of the articles. (2) All money payable by any member to the company under the memorandum or articles shall be a debt due from him to the company. Sec 37 Provision as to companies limited by guarantee. (1) In the case of a company limited by guarantee and not having a share capital, and registered on or after the first day of April, 1914, every rovision in the memorandum or articles or in any resolution of the company purporting to give any person a right to participate in the divisible profits of the company otherwise than as a member shall be void. 26 (2) For the purpose of the provisions of this Act relating to the memorandum of a company limited by guarantee and of this section, eve